“Wind extinguishes a candle and energizes fire. Likewise with randomness, uncertainty, chaos: you want to use them, not hide from them. You want to be the fire and wish for the wind.” – Nicholas Nassim Taleb

Agile and Antifragile… one word you know, and another perhaps you don’t.

Taleb BooksAntifragile. The word is so new it doesn’t appear in any dictionary… yet. It was introduced to the world by one of my all-time favorite authors, Nassim Nicholas Taleb, in his 2012 book “Antifragile – Things that gain from disorder”.

One might imagine that the list of “things that gain from disorder” could be written on a single post-it note with room to spare. Short in length and narrow in scope indeed, but the more you dig the more applications you see. There are numerous parallels to product development here, waiting to be picked.

When someone offers you a way to benefit from disorder instead of being harmed by it, wouldn’t you be curious? Sign me up! Should be enough material for a few blog posts. Not sure how many – all I know is that this is part 1.

Disorder Defined

Things that gain from disorder… intriguing. Better clarify what is meant by disorder then. Disorder can be many things, so Taleb provides a rough summary of the “extended disorder family”:

(i) uncertainty, (ii) variability, (iii) imperfect, incomplete knowledge, (iv) chance, (v) chaos, (vi) volatility, (vii) disorder, (viii) entropy, (ix) time, (x) the unknown, (xi) randomness, (xii) turmoil, (xiii) stressor, (xiv) error, (xv) dispersion of outcomes, (xvi) unknowledge.

As a shorthand, I’ll refer to the family as either disorder or randomness, depending on context or the whim of the moment.

To a traditional Project Manager, these family members are all harbingers of bad news, like an unwelcome visit from the Mafia. To the Developer, they are facts of life. The “project management” activity aims to wrestle the disorder family to the ground and squeeze out as much predictability, control and stability as possible.

That, as Taleb likes to say, is a “sucker game”.

It’s a sucker game because the problem is unsolvable. We’ll never eliminate or control randomness. If we could, randomness wouldn’t be coming at us at inconvenient times from unexpected directions. The winning game is not to tame randomness (we can’t), but to manage our exposure to the effects of disorder by assuming change and volatility is ever-present. Here you can already see the first signs of parallels to Agile: we embrace change and new emerging information. We adapt to a changing environment. Variability and uncertainty are not to be resisted, but used.

We need a way, then, to help us get a handle on this disorder thing. You can’t exploit what you can’t see. And so we introduce the Triad.

Fragile – Robust – Antifragile

Everything in the world can be classified into The Triad: Fragile, Robust or Antifragile according to how they respond to disorder.

Something that breaks when subjected to disorder is Fragile. For example, a porcelain teacup which is dropped onto the tile floor has nothing to gain and probably will break.

The Robust neither breaks nor gains from disorder. Robust or resilient things retain their shape after being exposed to shocks. That is good, as they don’t get any worse – but they don’t improve either.

We typically think of the opposite of Fragile as robust or resilient, but as Taleb is the first to articulate, the opposite of breaking under stress is not to stay the same but to get better. What kinds of things could possibly benefit from randomness and disorder? Well, a lot of things, and Taleb gave us the word Antifragile to give the concept a name. Things that are antifragile respond positively to disorder and randomness. They grow and get stronger.

OK, we are engineers with logical minds trained in linear thought. This can be hard to wrap your mind around, so let’s look at some examples.

The easiest approach is to look at the opposite end of the spectrum first. Fragility is easily detected. Anything that looks like a line of dominoes that have to fall in place perfectly is fragile because any kind of variation or instability (one domino out of order is enough) will upset the plan.

For example, if you are traveling by air and your itinerary depends on making 3 different connections with no allowance for delay, then your plan is fragile to delays. The more such dependencies you have, the more fragile your trip will be.

Think about all the fun project Gantt-charts with carefully laid-out dependencies you have been exposed to in your lifetime. None of them (none!) executed according to plan. The bigger your project is, the more moving parts you have. The more moving parts, the more fragile you become because you have more opportunity for things to wrong. Size makes you fragile (this will be a separate blog post for sure). You can hide fragility behind buffers, but it doesn’t reduce the fragility of your reality. It just lets you pretend it doesn’t exist and delivers a bigger surprise when things go really wrong. This we mistake for confidence.

Robustness in R&D typically come in the form of buffers or backup-plans. Both are expensive because in both cases we trade stability for schedule time or resources. Since most R&D projects are people-intensive (easily 80% of project costs come from salaries), this is the most expensive way to purchase perceived predictability.

Mother Nature is Antifragile. Here is  system that depends on random events. Evolution can not do its work in a perfectly stable system where there is no variation. If there is no genetic variation, then there is also no way to improve the species. Genetic variation (mutation – say sharper teeth for a carnivore) is necessary for the improvement of species. Evolution is fueled by randomness. It’s a volume business, for sure, and most variations don’t result in meaningful improvements. But once in a while a new ability surfaces which ends up dominating. Here we see at least two members of the disorder family at play: variability and time.


There is a lot more in common between Agile and Antifragile than contracting the two words into AntifrAgile – although the word combination is cute and rather serendipitous. And maybe prophetic.

Yes, Agile methods embrace change as a fact of life but the dive into AntifrAgile goes much deeper than that. It boils down to a different way of looking at risk – and therefore also acting differently on a daily basis.  We stop trying to predict or eliminate random events, and instead put ourselves in a position where surprise is not an unwelcome guest but rather the wind that energizes the fire.

As we shall see later, like Mother Nature we can exploit disorder in product development rather than being harmed by it. Taleb outlines several strategies for how to do that in other parts of life, and I’ll try to relate them to the Lean/Agile mindset. As we draw the parallels, you might get a better appreciation into how randomness is also Agile’s friend. And – perhaps in the process we’ll tread into uncharted Agile waters. Who knows.


Ok that is almost enough for this first post on Agile and Antifragile. Maybe you can start to see the trajectory of how Agile and Antifragile intersect. They are overlapping in so many places, sharing much of the same DNA.

So what’s the big deal? Understanding how Antifragility can work to your advantage will unlock more options and maybe even push our application of Agile methods forward in new directions. I am a big believer in adopting and adapting ideas from other areas, and if we can overcome our domain dependence then we have one more source of inspiration to draw on which will help us move away from the Fragile world of Gantt-charts and into the more dynamic world of Agile.

And hey, it doesn’t hurt to get independent confirmation from other parts of life about the sensibility of Agile, and to see that Agile’s way of dealing with uncertainty has merit outside of Software Development.

2 thoughts on “AntifrAgile

  1. Lean Systems: Antifragile Applied – The Lean Viking

  2. Scaling Agile – it’s not the same problem – The Lean Viking

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